Category Archives: AEA Conference

Curb Your “Malthusiasm”—How Evaluation Can Contribute to A Sustainable and Equitable Future

malthus_evalblogThe theme of the upcoming 2014 annual conference of the American Evaluation Association (AEA) challenges participants to consider how evaluation can contribute to a sustainable and equitable future. It’s a fantastic challenge, one that cuts to the core of why evaluation matters—its potential to promote the public good locally and globally, today and in the future.

As I prepare my presentations, I want to share some of my thoughts and encourage others to take up the challenge.

The End is Nigh(ish)

The natural and social environments in which we live have limits. Exceed them, and society puts itself at risk.

It’s a simple idea, but one that did not enter the public’s thinking until Thomas Malthus wrote about it in the late 18th century. He famously predicted that, unless something changed, the British population would soon grow too large to feed itself. As it turns out, something did change—among other things, merchants imported food—and the crisis never came to pass.

Today, Malthus is strongly—and unjustly—associated with, as Lauren F. Landsburg put it, “a pessimistic prediction of the lock-step demise of a humanity doomed to starvation via overpopulation.” This jolly point of view is sometimes referred to as Malthusianism, and applied to all forms of catastrophic environmental and social decline.

The underlying concept Malthus articulated—there are real environmental and societal limits, and real consequences for exceeding them—is not controversial. There are, however, controversial perspectives related to it, including:

  • “Malthusiasm”: A passionate belief in—bordering on enthusiasm for—the inevitability of environmental and social collapse, especially in the short term.
  • Denialism: An equally passionate belief that predictions of environmental and social disaster, like those made by Malthus, never come to pass.
  • Self-correctionism: A belief that many small, undirected changes in individual and organizational behavior, related primarily to markets and other social structures, will naturally correct for problems in complex ways that may, at first, be difficult to notice.
  • Intentionalism: A belief that intentional action at the individual, organizational, and social levels—when well planned, executed, and evaluated—can not only help avoid disaster, but produce positive benefits that serve the public good.

I reject the first two. I hope for the third. I’ve spent my life working for the fourth—and this is where evaluation can play a significant role.

From Avoiding Disaster to Promoting Sustainability

I am as much for avoiding disaster as the next guy, but—rightly or wrongly—I expect more from organized human action. Like sustainability. It’s a concept that I and others strongly believe should guide the actions of every organization. It is also a slippery concept that we have not fully defined, making it a rough guide, at best.

So, connecting ideas from various sources (and a few of my own), I’ve developed a preliminary working definition based on a set of underlying principles (in parentheses):

Actions are sustainable when they do not affect future generations adversely (futurity), social groups differentially (equity), larger social and natural systems destructively (globality), or their own objectives negatively (complexity).

I’m not fully satisfied with the definition, but so far it has helped clarify my thinking.

Why Evaluation Matters

Unfortunately, action is only weakly linked to upholding these principles, in part because there is often a lack of information about how well the principles have been (or will be) met.

That is where evaluation comes in. If we use our skills to help design the actions of commercial and social enterprises in ways that uphold these principles, we serve the public good. If we evaluate programs in ways that shed light on these principles—which would require most of us to expand our field of view—we also serve the public good.

This is why evaluation matters—because it has the potential to serve the public good—and why we need to work together to make it matter more. That would truly be evaluation for a sustainable and equitable future.

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New European Standard for Social Impact Measurement

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Evaluation has truly become a global movement. The number of evaluators and evaluation associations around the world is growing, and they are becoming more interconnected. What affects evaluation in one part of the world increasingly affects how it is practiced in another.

That is why the European standard for social impact measurement, announced just a few weeks ago, is important for evaluators in the US.

According to the published report and its accompanying press release, the immediate purpose of the standard is to help social enterprises access EU financial support, especially in relation to the European Social Entrepreneurship Funds (EuSEFs) and the Programme for Employment and Social Innovation (EaSI).

But as László Andor, EU Commissioner for Employment, Social Affairs and Inclusion, pointed out, there is a larger purpose:

The new standard…sets the groundwork for social impact measurement in Europe. It also contributes to the work of the Taskforce on Social Impact Investment set up by the G7 to develop a set of general guidelines for impact measurement to be used by social impact investors globally.

That is big, and it has the potential to affect evaluation around the world.

What is impact measurement?

For evaluators in the US, the term impact measurement may be unfamiliar. It has greater currency in Europe and, of late, in Canada. Defining the term precisely is difficult because, as an area of practice, impact measurement is evolving quickly.

Around the world, there is a growing demand for evaluations that incorporate information about impact, values, and value. It is coming from government agencies, philanthropic foundations, and private investors who want to increase their social impact by allocating their public or private funds more efficiently.

Sometimes these funders are called impact investors. In some contexts, the label signals a commitment to grant making that incorporates the tools and techniques of financial investors. In others, it signals a commitment by private investors to a double bottom line—a social return on their investment for others and a financial return for themselves.

These funders want to know if people are better off in ways that they and other stakeholders believe are important. Moreover, they want to know whether those impacts are large enough and important enough to warrant the funds being spent to produce them. In other words, did the program add value?

Impact measurement may engage a wide range of stakeholders to define the outcomes of interest, but the overarching definition of success—that the program adds value—is typically driven by funders. Value may be assessed with quantitative, qualitative, or mixed methods, but almost all of the impact measurement work that I have seen has framed value in quantitative terms.

Is impact measurement the same as evaluation?

I consider impact measurement a specialized practice within evaluation. Others do not. Geographic and disciplinary boundaries have tended to isolate those who identify themselves as evaluators from those who conduct impact measurement—often referred to as impact analysts. These two groups are beginning to connect, like evaluators of every kind around the world.

I like to think of impact analysts and evaluators as twins who were separated at birth and then, as adults, accidentally bump into each other at the local coffee shop. They are delighted and confused, but mostly delighted. They have a great deal to talk about.

How is impact measurement different from impact evaluation?

There is more than one approach to impact evaluation. There is what we might call traditional impact evaluation—randomized control trials and quasi-experiments as described by Shadish, Cook, and Campbell. There are also many recently developed alternatives—contribution analysis, evaluation of collective impact, and others.

Impact measurement differs from traditional and alternative impact evaluation in a number of ways, among them:

  1. how impacts are estimated and
  2. a strong emphasis on valuation.

I discuss both in more detail below. Briefly, impacts are frequently estimated by adjusting outcomes for a pre-established set of potential biases, usually without reference to a comparison or control group. Valuation estimates the importance of impacts to stakeholders—the domain of human values—and expresses it in monetary units.

These two features are woven into the European standard and have the potential to become standard practices elsewhere, including the US. If they were to be incorporated into US practice, it would represent a substantial change in how we conduct evaluations.

What is the new European standard?

The standard creates a common process for conducting impact measurement, not a common set of impacts or indicators. The five-step process presented in the report is surprisingly similar to Tyler’s seven-step evaluation procedure, which he developed in the 1930s as he directed the evaluation of the Eight-Year Study across 30 schools. For its time, Tyler’s work was novel and the scale impressive.

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Tyler’s evaluation procedure developed in the 1930s and the new European standard process: déjà vu all over again?

Tyler’s first two steps were formulating and classifying objectives (what do programs hope to achieve and which objectives can be shared across sites to facilitate comparability and learning). Deeply rooted in the philosophy of progressive education, he and his team identified the most important stakeholders—students, parents, educators, and the larger community—and conducted much of their work collaboratively (most often with teachers and school staff).

Similarly, the first two steps of the European standard process are identifying objectives and stakeholders (what does the program hope to achieve, who benefits, and who pays). They are to be implemented collaboratively with stakeholders (funders and program staff chief among them) with an explicit commitment to serving the interests of society more broadly.

Tyler’s third and fourth steps were defining outcomes in terms of behavior and identifying how and where the behaviors could be observed. The word behavior was trendy in Tyler’s day. What he meant was developing a way to observe or quantify outcomes. This is precisely setting relevant measures, the third step of the new European standard process.

Tyler’s fifth and sixth steps were selecting, trying, proving, and improving measures as they function in the evaluation. Today we would call this piloting, validation, and implementation. The corresponding step in the standard is measure, validate and value, only the last of these falling outside the scope of Tyler’s procedure.

Tyler concluded his procedure with interpreting results, which for him included analysis, reporting, and working with stakeholders to facilitate the effective use of results. The new European standard process concludes in much the same way, with reporting results, learning from them, and using them to improve the program.

How are impacts estimated?

Traditional impact evaluation defines an impact as the difference in potential outcomes—the outcomes participants realized with the program compared to the outcomes they would have realized without the program.

It is impossible to observe both of these mutually exclusive conditions at the same time. Thus, all research designs can be thought of as hacks, some more elegant than others, that allow us to approximate one condition while observing the other.

The European standard takes a similar view of impacts and describes a good research design as one that takes the following into account:

  • attribution,the extent to which the program, as opposed to other programs or factors, caused the outcomes;
  • deadweight, outcomes that, in the absence of the program, would have been realized anyway;
  • drop-off, the tendency of impacts to diminish over time; and
  • displacement, the extent to which outcomes realized by program participants prevent others from realizing those outcomes (for example, when participants of a job training program find employment, it reduces the number of open jobs and as a result may make it more difficult for non-participants to find employment).

For any given evaluation, many research designs may meet the above criteria, some with the potential to provide more credible findings than others.

However, impact analysts may not be free to choose the research design with the potential to provide the most credible results. According to the standard, the cost and complexity of the design must be proportionate to the size, scope, cost, potential risks, and potential benefits of the program being evaluated. In other words, impact analysts must make a difficult tradeoff between credibility and feasibility.

How well are analysts making the tradeoff between credibility and feasibility?

At the recent Canadian Evaluation Society Conference, my colleagues Cristina Tangonan, Anna Fagergren (not pictured), and I addressed this question. We described the potential weaknesses of research designs used in impact measurement generally and Social Return on Investment (SROI) analyses specifically. Our work is based on a review of publicly available SROI reports (to date, 107 of 156 identified reports) and theoretical work on the statistical properties of the estimates produced.

ces_2014_tangonan_gargani_evalblogAt the CES 2014 conference.

What we have found so far leads us to question whether the credibility-feasibility tradeoffs are being made in ways that adequately support the purposes of SROI analyses and other forms of impact measurement.

One design that we discussed starts with measuring the outcome realized by program participants. For example, how many participants of a job training program found employment, or the test scores realized by students who were enrolled in a new education program. Sometimes impact analysts will measure the outcome as a pre-program/post-program difference, often they measure the post-program outcome level on its own.

Once the outcome measure is in hand, impact analysts adjust it for attribution, deadweight, drop-off, and displacement by subtracting some amount or percentage for each potential bias. The adjustments may be based on interviews with past participants, prior academic or policy research, or sensitivity analysis. Rarely are they based on comparison or control groups constructed for the evaluation. The resulting adjusted outcome measure is taken as the impact estimate.

This is an example of a high-feasibility, low-credibility design. Is it good enough for the purposes that impact analysts have in mind? Perhaps, but I’m skeptical. There is a century of systematic research on estimating impacts—why didn’t this method, which is much more feasible than many alternatives, become a standard part of evaluation practice decades before? I believe it is because the credibility of the design (or more accurately, the results it can produce) is considered too low for most purposes.

From what I understand, this design–and others that are similar–would meet the European standard. That leads me to question whether the new standard has set the bar too low, unduly favoring feasibility over credibility.

What is valuation?

In the US, I believe we do far less valuation than is currently being done in Europe and Canada. Valuation expresses the value (importance) of impacts in monetary units (a measure of importance).

If the outcome, for example, were earned income, then valuation would entail estimating an impact as we usually would. If the outcome were health, happiness, or well-being, valuation would be more complicated. In this case, we would need to translate non-monetary units to monetary units in a way that accurately reflects the relative value of impacts to stakeholders. No easy feat.

In some cases, valuation may help us gauge whether the monetized value of a program’s impact is large enough to matter. It is difficult to defend spending $2,000 per participant of a job training program that, on average, results in additional earned income of $1,000 per participant. Participants would be better off if we gave $2,000 to each.

At other times, valuation may not be useful. For example, if one health program saves more lives than another, I don’t believe we need to value lives in dollars to judge their relative effectiveness.

Another concern is that valuation reduces the certainty of the final estimate (in monetary units) as compared to an impact estimate on its own (in its original units). That is a topic that I discussed at the CES conference, and will again at the conferences of the European Evaluation Society, Social Impact Analysts Association, and the American Evaluation Association .

There is more to this than I can hope to address here. In brief—the credibility of a valuation can never be greater than the credibility of the impact estimate upon which it is based. Call that Gargani’s Law.

If ensuring the feasibility of an evaluation results in impact estimates with low credibility (see above), we should think carefully before reducing credibility further by expressing the impact in monetary units.

Where do we go from here?

The European standard sets out to solve a problem that is intrinsic to our profession–stakeholders with different perspectives are constantly struggling to come to agreement about what makes an evaluation good enough for the purposes they have in mind. In the case of the new standard, I fear the bar may be set too low, tipping the balance in favor of feasibility over credibility.

That is, of course, speculation. But so too is believing the balance is right or that it is tipped in the other direction. What is needed is a program of research—research on evaluation—that helps us understand whether the tradeoffs we make bear the fruit we expect.

The lack of research on evaluation is a weak link in the chain of reasoning that makes our work matter in Europe, the US, and around the world. My colleagues and I are hoping to strengthen that link a little, but we need others to join us. I hope you will.

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On the Ground at AEA #2: What Participants Had to Say

Are you suffering from “post-parting depression” now that the conference of the American Evaluation Association has ended? Maybe this will help–a sampling of the professionals who attended the conference, along with their thoughts on the experience.  Special thanks to Anna Fagergren who collected most of these photos and quotes.

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Stefany Tobel Ramos, City Year

This is my first time here and I really enjoyed the professional development workshop Evaluation-Specific Methodology. I learned a lot and have new ideas about how to get a sense of students as a whole.

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Jonathan Karanja, Independent Consultant with Nielsen, Kenya

This is my first time here and Nielsen is trying to get into the evaluation space, because that is what our clients want. The conference is a little overwhelming but I have a strategy – go to the not technically demanding, easy-to-digest sessions. Baby steps. I want to ensure that our company learns to not just apply market research techniques but to actually do evaluation.

george_julnes_aea_2013_evalblogGeorge Julnes, University of Baltimore

When I attend AEA, I get to present to enthusiastic groups of evaluation professionals. It makes me feel like a rock star for a week. Then I go home and do the dishes.

linda_pursley_aea_2013_evalblogLinda Pursley, Lesley University

I’m returning to the conference after some years away—it’s great to renew contact with acquaintances and colleagues. I am struck by the conference’s growth and the huge diversity of TIGs (topical interest groups), and I’m finding a lot of sessions of interest.

pieta_blakely_aea_2013_evalblog

Pieta Blakely, Commonwealth Corporation

It’s my first time here and it’s a little overwhelming. I’m getting to know what I don’t know. But it’s also really exciting to see people working on youth engagement because I’m really interested in that.

linda_stern_aea_2103_evalblogLinda Stern, National Democratic Institute

I’ve been coming for many years, and I really like the two professional development workshops I took—Sampling and Empowerment Evaluation Strategies—and how they helped guide my way through the greater conference program.

DSC02841Carsten Strømbæk Pedersen, National Board of Social Services, Denmark

John, I really like your blog. You have…how do you say it in English?…a twisted mind. I really like that.

Aske Graulund, National Board of Social Services, Denmark

Nina Middelboe, Oxford Research AS, Denmark

[nods of agreement]

No greater compliment, Carsten!  And my compliments to all 3,500 professionals who participated in the conference.

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On the Recursive Nature of Recursion: Reflections on the AEA 2013 Conference

John Gargani Not Blogging

Recursion is when your local bookstore opens a café inside the store in order to attract more readers, and then the café opens a bookstore inside itself to attract more coffee drinkers.

Chris Lysy at Freshspectrum.com noticed, laughed at, and illustrated (above) the same phenomenon as it relates to my blogging (or rather lack of it) during the American Evaluation Association Conference last week.

I intended to harness the power of recursion by blogging about blogging at the conference. I reckoned that would nudge a few others to blog at the conference, which in turn would nudge me to do the same.

I ended up blogging very little during those hectic days, and none of it was about blogging at the conference. Giving up on that idea, I landed on blogging about not blogging, then not blogging about not blogging, then blogging about not blogging about not blogging, and so on.

Once Chris opened my eyes to the recursive nature of recursion, I noticed it all around me at the conference.

roe_aea_2013_evalblogFor example, the Research on Evaluation TIG (Topical Interest Group) discussed using evaluation methods to evaluate how we evaluate. Is that merely academic navel gazing? It isn’t. I would argue that it may be the most important area of evaluation today.

As practitioners, we conduct evaluations because we believe they can make a positive impact in the world, and we choose how to evaluate in ways we believe produce the greatest impact. Ironically, we have little evidence upon which to base our choices. We rarely measure our own impact or study how we can best achieve it.

ROE (research on evaluation, for those in the know) is setting that right. And the growing community of ROE researchers and practitioners is attempting to do so in an organized fashion. I find it quite inspiring.

A great example of ROE and the power of recursion is the work of Tom Cook and his colleagues (chief among them Will Shadish).tom_cook_aea_2103_evalblogI must confess that Tom is a hero of mine. A wonderful person who finds tremendous joy in his work and shares that joy with others. So I can’t help but smile every time I think of him using experimental and quasi-experimental methods to evaluate experimental and quasi-experimental methods.

Experiments and quasi-experiments follow the same general logic. Create two (or more) comparable groups of people (or whatever may be of interest). Provide one experience to one group and a different experience to the other. Measure outcomes of interest for the two groups at the end of their experiences. Given that, differences in outcomes between the groups are attributable to differences in the experiences of the groups.

If on group received a program and the other did not, you have a very strong method for estimating program impacts. If on group received a program designed one way and the other a program designed another way, you have a strong basis for choosing between program designs.

Experiments and quasi-experiments differ principally in how they create comparable groups. Experiments assign people to groups at random. In essence, names are pulled from a hat (in reality, computers select names at random from a list). This yields two highly comparable but artificially constructed groups.

Quasi-experiments typically operate by allowing people to choose experiences as they do in everyday life. This yields naturally constructed groups that are less comparable. Why are they less comparable? The groups are comprised of people who made difference choices, and these choice may be associated with other factors that affect outcomes. The good news is that the groups can be made more comparable–to some degree–by using a variety of statistical methods.

four_arm_study_aea_2013_evalblogIs one approach better than another? At the AEA Conference, Tom described his involvement with efforts to answer that question. One way that is done is by randomly assigning people to two groups–one group that will be part of an experiment or another group that will be part of a quasi-experiment (referred to as an observational study in the picture above). Within the experimental group, participants are randomly assigned to either a treatment group (e.g., math training) or control group (vocabulary training). Within the quasi-experimental group, participants choose between the same two experiences, forming treatment and comparison groups according to their preference.

Program impact estimates are compared for the experimental and quasi-experimental groups. Differences at this level are attributable to the evaluation method and can indicate whether one method is biased with respect to the other. So far, there seems to be pretty good agreement between the methods (when implemented well–no small achievement), but much work remains to be done.

coming_together_aea_2013_evalblog

Perhaps the most important form of recursion at the AEA Conference is membership. AEA is comprised of members who manage themselves by forming groups of members who manage themselves by forming groups of members who manage themselves. The board of AEA, TIGs, local affiliates, task forces, working groups, volunteer committees, and conference sessions are all organized by and comprised of groups of members who manage themselves. That is power of recursion–3,500 strangers coming together to create a community dedicated to making the world a better place. And what a joy to watch them pull it off.

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On the Ground at AEA #1: Tina and Rodney

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Rodney Hopson, Professor, George Mason University (Past President of AEA)

I’m plotting.  I’m always plotting. That’s how you make change in the world. You find the opportunities, great people to work with, and make things happen.

Tina Christie, Professor, UCLA

I’ve just finished three years on the AEA board with Rodney. The chance to connect with colleagues like Rodney–work with them, debate with them, laugh with them–is something I look forward to each year. It quickly starts to feel like family.

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Confessions of a Conference Junkie

evalblog_conference_junkieIt’s true—I am addicted to conferences. While I read about evaluation, write about evaluation, and do evaluations in my day-to-day professional life, it’s not enough. To truly connect to the field and its swelling ranks of practitioners, researchers, and supporters, I need to attend conferences. Compulsively. Enthusiastically. Constantly.

Over the past few months, I was honored to be the keynote speaker at the Canadian Evaluation Society conference in Toronto and the Danish Evaluation Society in Kolding. Over the past two years I have been from Helsinki to Honolulu to speak, present, and give workshops. The figure below shows some of that travel (conferences indicated with darker circles, upcoming travel with dashed lines).

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But today is special—it’s the first day of the American Evaluation Association conference in Washington, DC. If conferences were cities, this one would be New York—big, vibrant, and international.

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And this year, in addition to my presentations, receptions, and workshops (here and here), I will attempt to do something I have never done before—blog from the conference.

EvalBlog has been quiet this summer. Time to make a little digital noise.

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Conference Blog: Evaluation 2012 (Part 1)—Complexity

I have a great fondness for the American Evaluation Association and its Annual Conference.  At this year’s conference—Evaluation 2012—roughly 3,000 evaluators from around the world came together to share their work, rekindle old friendships, and establish new ones.  I was pleased and honored to be a part of it.

As I moved from session to session, I would ask those I met my favorite question—What have you learned that you will use in your practice?

Their answers—lists, connections, reflections—were filled with insights and surprises.  They helped me understand the wide range of ideas being discussed at the conference and how those ideas are likely to emerge in practice.

In the spirit of that question, I would like to share some thoughts about a few ideas that were thick in the air, starting with this post on complexity.

Complexity: The Undefined Elephant in the Room

The theme of the conference was Evaluation in Complex Ecologies: Relationships, Responsibilities, Relevance.  Not surprisingly, the concept of complexity received a great deal of attention.

Like many bits of evaluation jargon, it has a variety of legitimate formal and informal definitions.  Consequently, evaluators use the term in different ways at different times, which led a number of presenters to make statements that I found difficult to parse.

Here are a few that I jotted down:

“That’s not complex, it’s complicated.”

“A few simple rules can give rise to tremendous complexity.”

“Complexity can lead to startling simplicity.”

“A system can be simple and complicated at the same time.”

“Complexity can lead to highly stable systems or highly unstable systems.”

“Much of time people use the term complexity wrong.”

We are, indeed, a profession divided by a common language.

Why can’t we agree on a definition for complexity?

First, no other discipline has.  Perhaps that is too strong a statement—small sub-disciplines have developed common understandings of the term, but across those small groups there is little agreement.

Second, we cannot decide if complexity, simplicity, and complicatedness, however defined, are:

(A) Mutually exclusive

(B) Distinct but associated

(C) Inclusive and dependent

(D) All of the above

From what I can tell, the answer is (D).  That doesn’t help much, does it?

Third, we conflate the entities that we label as complex, complicated, or simple.  Over the past week, I heard the term complexity used to describe:

  • real-world structures such as social, environmental, and physical systems;
  • cognitive structures that we use to reason about real-world structures;
  • representations that we use to describe and communicate our cognitive structures;
  • computer models that we use to reveal the behavior of a system that is governed by a mathematically formal interpretation of our representations;
  • behaviors exhibited by real-world structures, cognitive structures, and computer models;
  • strategies that we develop to change the real world in a positive way;
  • human actions undertaken to implement change strategies; and
  • evaluations of our actions and strategies.

When we neglect to specify which entities we are discussing, or treat these entities as interchangeable, clarity is lost.

Where does this get us?

I hope it encourages us to do the following when we invoke the concept of complexity: define what we mean and identify what we are describing.  If we do that, we don’t need to agree—and we will be better understood.

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Conference Blog: The American Evaluation Association Conference About to Kickoff

It’s been a busy few months for me.  I have been leading workshops, making presentations, attending conferences, and working in Honolulu, Helsinki, London, Tallinn (Estonia), and Claremont.  I met some amazing people and learned a great deal about how evaluation is being practiced around the world.  More about this in later posts.

This morning, I am in Minneapolis for the Annual Conference of the American Evaluation Association, which begins today. While I am here, I will be reporting on the latest trends, techniques, and opportunities in evaluation.

Today will be interesting.  I lead a half-day workshop on program design with Stewart Donaldson. Then I chair a panel discussion on the future of evaluation (a topic that, to my surprise, has mushroomed from a previous EvalBlog post  into a number of conference presentations and a website).

Off to the conference–more later.

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From Evaluation 2010 to Evaluator 911

 

The West Coast Reception hosted by San Francisco Bay Area Evaluators (SFBAE), Southern California Evaluation Association (SCEA), and Claremont Graduate University (CGU) is an AEA Conference tradition and I look forward to it all year long.  I never miss it (and as Director of SFBAE, I had better not).

But as I was leaving the hotel to head to the reception my coworker came up to me and whispered, “I am in severe pain—I need to go the hospital right now.”  Off we went to the closest emergency room where she was admitted, sedated, and subjected to a mind numbing variety of tests.  After some hours of medical mayhem she called me in to her room and said, “The doctor wants me to rest here while we wait for the test results to come back.  That could take a couple hours.  I’m comfortable and not at any risk, so why don’t you go the reception?  It’s only two blocks from here.  I’ll call you when we get the test results.”

What a trooper!

So I jogged over to the reception and found that the party was still going strong hours after it was scheduled to close down (that’s a West Coast Reception tradition).  Kari Greene, an OPEN member who may be one of the funniest people on the planet, had us all in stitches as she regaled us with stories of evaluations run amok (other people’s, of course).  Jane Davidson of Genuine Evaluation fame (pictured below) explained that drinking sangria is simple, making sangria is complicated, but making more sangria after drinking a few glasses was complex.  I am not sure what that means, but I saw a lot of heads nodding.  The graduate students in evaluation from CGU were embracing the “opportunivore” lifestyle as they filled their stomachs (and their pockets) with shrimp, empanadas, and canapés.

Then my phone rang—my coworker’s tests were clear and the situation resolved.  I left the party (still going strong) and took her back to the hotel, at which point she said, “I’m glad you made it to the reception—we can’t break the streak.  If you end up in the hospital next year we’ll bring the party to you!”

And that, in a nutshell, is the spirit of the conference—connection, community, and continuity.  Well, that and shrimp in your pockets.

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The AEA Conference (So Far)

The AEA conference has been great. I have been very impressed with the presentations that I have attended so far, though I can’t claim to have seen the full breadth of what is on offer as there are roughly 700 presentations in total.  Here are a few that impressed me the most.  Continue reading

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